OVC FUNDING ALLOWS PROGRAM EXPANSION
Through funding from NIJ, the SANE-SART Resource Service has developed a SANE-SART Online Learning + Clinical educational program that will provide online adult and adolescent SANE didactic and on site SANE clinical training for approximately 112 RNs wanting to qualify as SANE-A’s. Now, through additional funding from the Office for Victims of Crime, the SANE-SART Online Learning Program is expanding to include special tracks for advocates, law enforcement officers and legal representatives beginning in September of 2013. The didactic component delivers thirty-two hours of self-directed online learning and eight hours delivered via webinar, for a total of 40 hours.
After completing an online component the learner will attend a related webinar that will augment the information provided online and allow them to ask additional questions from a subject matter expert. The webinars will also be taped and stored online for others to review at a later time.
SART ONLINE APPLICATION FORMS:
Please click on the links below to access the application form for your discipline:
Please note that you will be asked on your application if you are interested in in assembling a SART team for an expense-paid two-day on-site training where your SART-team will work as a team to take a sexual assault case from first report through to a mock trial under the direction of our team of experienced SART professionals. This will be referred to as the Interactive Scenario.
If you check the box that you are interested, you will receive further information along with a team application form to participate in the SART Interactive Scenario. A SART Team will need to have a minimum of four team members representing three of five SART disciplines to qualify for consideration. Each applicant on a team will be asked to submit a statement of support from their supervisor.
NEW SART TEAM TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES FOR 2013 and 2014 INTERACTIVE SCENARIO APPLICATION
If one or more of your SART Team members has completed our online SANE training or the Law Enforcement, Legal, or Victim Advocate track of your training, they have qualified you to apply to participate in an Interactive Scenario as described below. Please click on the link to fill out and submit the initial application form for this two-day training. Our grant funds will cover four team members for selected teams. A fifth team member can be added at the team's expense.
INTERACTIVE SCENARIO DESCRIPTION
We are very pleased to announce that a limited number of victim advocates, law enforcement officers, legal representatives and SANE nurses will be offered the opportunity to train together as teams in 2013 and 2014. This opportunity for on-site training will provide teams across the U.S. to work together by participating in an Interactive Scenario (IAS). While SART’s are expected to work together, they rarely have the opportunity to train together. This will provide that opportunity.
After successfully completing the online training, teams of four members representing at least three SART disciplines will be selected to participate in a two-day on-site training. As a team they will solve a sexual assault crime from the initial victim interview to trial. All training will be provided at no charge to the participants and each individual will be reimbursed for necessary travel expenses, including meals, air and lodging to a maximum allowable level.
Following the format used at National SART Conferences, SART members will learn how law enforcement and advocates deal with the reluctant witness and make tough decisions about what evidence is admissible. They will follow the crime from the initial report through medical and crime scene evidence collection to the trial. Each IAS will include the following sessions:
Session I: Opening Session: Victim Interview by law enforcement
Nothing is more crucial to a sexual assault investigation than the information that the victim is able to relate regarding the crime. The victim will provide the crucial details surrounding the sexual assault, which can assist in corroborating the incident, allow for the follow-up on leads, and help to establish the legal elements of the offense. This interview may later be the deciding factor in trial as to the determination of guilt or innocence. SART members responsible for these comprehensive interviews must remain objective, be able to understand human behavior, and at the same time avoid “victim blaming.”
In this session, SART team members will have the opportunity to interview a victim who is disclosing a sexual assault. A facilitated discussion will follow the interview, allowing for an exploration of the interviewing techniques used and the nature of the information obtained. The students will learn how to conduct a comprehensive interview of the victim, while being sensitive to the needs of the victim. The students will be able to elicit difficult, probing information, while avoiding placing any blame on or otherwise being critical of the victim’s conduct. An overview of the two days will also be included in this session. SARTs will watch elements of the crime unfold. Then, as a SART member, use the evidence that is collected to help work their way through the maze of the sexual assault investigation.
Session II: The Rape Crisis Center
The second session will start with a call to the local rape crisis center by another possible victim of the same assailant. She is concerned but not sure she wants to talk to law enforcement. She and the advocate will talk about her concerns and options and what the sexual assault investigation will involve.
Session III: Crime Scene Investigation
With the numerous crime shows on television today, many jurors expect corroborative forensic proofs in a sexual assault case. Although not all crime scenes will yield forensic evidence, the SART must be prepared to recover forensic evidence, or be able to explain why it is absent. Members of the SART, who are responsible for the processing of these scenes, must be familiar with the identification, collection and preservation of any forensic, trace or circumstantial evidence which could potentially be of probative value. In this session SART members will be given a mock crime scene to process, utilizing accepted methods for crime scene collection and preservation. A facilitated discussion will follow this session addressing the evidence collected and the methods utilized. The students will learn that multiple crime scenes may exist in a single case of sexual assault. They will gain experience in identifying potential crime scenes and the various types of evidence that may be contained therein.
Session IV: Victim Medical-legal Examination
This session will focus on the medical-legal evidentiary examination of the sexual assault victim. Controversial issues, such as the examination of the intoxicated patient and the unconscious patient will be discussed. In addition, the five components of the sexual assault evidentiary exam will each be addressed. These include: evaluation and documentation of injury; assessment of risk for sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV) and preventive care; evaluation of risk of pregnancy and prevention; collection of forensic evidence; and crisis intervention and follow-up needs. It will also include a review of the four uses of evidence found on the victim's body.
Session V: Suspect Interview
The interview of potential suspects can often be the turning point in a sexual assault case. The SART team investigator’s goal in these interviews is to determine the truth of what may or may not have occurred, in conformity with established legal principles to ensure that the information will later be admissible in court. After gathering the victim’s statement and processing the crime scene, SART team members will have the opportunity to interview potential suspects in the simulated case. A facilitated discussion will follow allowing for input on the interview strategies utilized and analysis of the statements obtained from the suspects. The students will gain a unique perspective on effective strategies that can be employed to gain maximum information from a suspect. They will be able to recognize the controlling legal principles under which the examination must be conducted.
Session VI: Laboratory Analysis Results, DNA 101 & DFSA
Crime laboratory results can aid in corroborating or refuting a victim's version of events and can provide information for prosecutors to use in charging decisions. Members of the SART team should have an awareness of how certain laboratory results factor into the ultimate charging decisions and ability for the prosecutor to prove his or her case. In this session SART members will be presented with a variety of different lab results (e.g., a DNA profile foreign to the victim, evidence that the victim was or was not positive for certain drugs) and will be asked to consider potential directions the case could take in light of the implications from the evidence in each different variation. The session will consist mostly of a facilitated discussion focusing on the various lab results presented.
Session VII: Trial Preparation and Charging Decisions
Charging decisions can make or break a case. An appropriate charge in a rape case can only be determined when adequate information has been developed to make an informed decision: a thorough police investigation, a comprehensive SANE forensic medical examination, and a victim, supported by an advocate, who is willing to proceed with prosecution. In this session the SART detective and prosecutor will present the simulated case to a senior prosecutor in an attempt to have charges authorized to proceed against the defendants with a felony prosecution. A facilitated discussion will follow addressing issues raised in the charging conference, including developing a trial strategy for presenting the case to a jury. The students will learn that only through the collaboration of the SART team members can adequate information be developed to make a proper legal assessment of the case. The team members should be able to anticipate potential problems that may arise, so that a comprehensive trial strategy may be developed.
Session VIII: Mock Trial
The work of the SART is not over until the criminal trial is completed. All team members must be thoroughly prepared to address their actions in the case in order to provide convincing testimony to a jury. In this session a prosecutor will conduct the direct examination of the victim in the simulated case, as well as examine the SANE nurse and case detective who were part of the SART team. An actual trial judge will preside over the trial. A facilitated discussion will follow addressing all issues raised during the course of the mock trial.
The students will gain an appreciation for the need to effectively communicate their findings to adequately educate the jury. Strategies will be developed as to how each team member may best present their testimony so that it is both focused and convincing.
New Promotional / Awareness Video: Break the Silence
A Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) informational video titled “Break the Silence” has recently been released. The video will be available to be used by persons interested in creating a SART and looking to educate other potential members, management, and the community on the value of a SART. Additionally, the video can be used by rural and Native American SARTs to make their respective communities aware of the SART and its ability to increase conviction rates, thus potentially increasing the willingness by victims to prosecute.
While working with communities across the US, especially in rural and Tribal communities to develop SARTs, some of the issues identified as a challenge has been the lack of awareness in their communities about SARTs, the lack of resources available to inform them of the value of developing a SART, and the value to the community of utilizing a SART once developed. This video will aid communities to better meet this need.
Distribution of the video will be aimed at professionals in Indian Country and rural areas interested in starting a SART, recently assigned SART members in Indian Country and in rural areas, and community members served by Indian Country and rural SARTs. SART teams will have access to downloads of the video, which they are welcome to use at community meetings, local cable and broadcast TV stations, etc.
Stated objectives for the video are as follows:
To make potential and recently assigned SART members, and community members, aware of the severity, complexity and impact of sexual assault in Indian Country and rural areas,
To make potential and recently assigned SART members aware of the power of a SART as a victim-centered group of professionals ready and able to seek justice for victims, and
To make potential and recently assigned SART members aware of the SART's benefits to the community.
This video was prepared by the SANE-SART Resource Service through a contract to Kinetic Learning, Inc. under grant number 2009-VF-GX-K011, awarded by the Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in the video are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or polices of the U.S. Department of Justice.
SANE-SART Resource Service Minneapolis, Minnesota
Funding awarded by the Office for Victims of Crime,
Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Grant No. 2009-VF-GX-K011
Most Recent Post: 11/18 02:09AM by kevinguru [ Views: 343 ]
SANE-SART ONLINE LEARNING PROGRAM - THIRD AND FINAL SANE SESSION FOR RN's NOW COMPLETE
Monday, March 04 2013 @ 02:15 PM Contributed by: adminLM
SANE-SART ONLINE LEARNING PROGRAM
This online learning program is available to SANE NURSES.
FREE Online Adult and Adolescent SANE-Didactic Plus Initial Clinical Training
The selection process for the new interactive, self-directed online and clinical course which meets the initial requirements of the International Association of Forensic Nurses requirements is well under way.
The course, SANE-SART Online+Clinical, will combine interactive simulations, webinars and onsite clinical training for the medical professional. The comprehensive course will be available to all members of the Sexual Assault Response Team including law enforcement, victim advocates, social workers, prosecutors and crime lab personnel.
Upon successful completion, RN’s with a current, valid license will receive 40 approved continuing nursing education contact hours for the online learning and 16 additional continuing education hours if selected for the onsite clinical training. All other disciplines will receive continuing education credits of up to 40 hours upon completion of the training course, and law enforcement will receive up to 40 POST Credits approved.
Combined with the onsite clinical facet, SANE-SART Online+Clinical’s unique interactive online components will enable a nurse to learn and practice SANE-A skills literally by “doing” at her or his own speed.
Dr. Linda Ledray, RN, PhD, SANE-A and FAAN, is the lead subject matter expert in the course’s development. Among many other accomplishments in the field of sexual assault response, she is the founder and director of the Sexual Assault Resource Service in Minneapolis, MN—one of the first SANE programs and is currently the Director of the SANE-SART Resource Service.
According to Dr. Ledray, SANE-SART Online+Clinical “will immerse learners in real-life clinical, legal and victim support situations in which they are challenged to learn by doing and to learn by making mistakes. Through this adult learning process, each SANE learner will be able to develop and demonstrate mastery of SANE-A knowledge and skills, both for clinical practice and courtroom trial.”
Dr. Ledray said the program is primarily directed to nurses without previous SANE training in rural and tribal audiences, where access to training is more limited, but audiences in any location will be welcome to enroll.
While the online Adult/Adolescent Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner training is not directly tied to SANE-A® certification, it is our goal that all RN’s who complete all 56 hours of the course will apply for SANE-A® certification. Full completion of the course is no guarantee that any examinee will achieve a passing score on the SANE-A® certification examination—particularly if the candidate does not meet the eligibility criteria. As a policy, IAFN does not grant any direct or implied endorsement or pre-approval for any specific 40-hour SANE training. Currently, the Forensic Nursing Certification Board (FNCB) makes such a determination only during a potential examinee’s application review process.
SANE-SART Online / Clinical Learning Program OVERVIEW – UPDATED OCTOBER 22, 2013:
IMPORTANT NEWS:The link for registration for the SANE portion of the SANE-SART Online Learning Program has been removed as the three sessions designed for SANE candidates are now complete.
Any candidates who have completed the SANE-SART Online + Clinical program without the opportunity to attend a Clinical will have the opportunity this spring to attend an additional Clinical. Watch for further details.
There will be one opportunity June 23 – August 22 to take the SANE course, with recorded Webinars. This session will not include the opportunity for Clinical training.
SANE-SART Online+Clinical is produced by Kinetic Learning, Inc., and is funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice to the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law.
Most Recent Post: 12/10 11:44PM by reshhia [ Views: 1578 ]
SANE-SART TRAININGS LISTING
Sunday, December 16 2012 @ 12:30 PM Contributed by: adminLM
NEW SANE - SART TRAININGS AVAILABLE
Last Updated: August 20, 2013
NATIONAL SART TRAINING CONFERENCE
Seventh National SART Training Conference CANCELED
Due to challenges presented by the DOJ event planning process, there will not be a Seventh National SART Training Conference. There are a number of other projects that we are working on with the Office for Victims of Crime to foster the opportunities to bring SART teams together and to improve the care provided to sexual assault victims by improving the SART system response to all victims of sexual assault. Please continue to check our website for further details about these new opportunities.
PEDIATRIC SEXUAL ASSAULT NURSE EXAMINER TRAINING
October 28 – November 1, 2013
Location: Marshall University Forensic Science Center, Huntington, WV
Sponsored by: the Marshall University Forensic Science Center (MUFSC) and the West Virginia Foundation for Rape Information and Services (WV-FRIS)
Instructor: Shalotta Sharp
Time: 8:00am to 5:00pm each day
Contact Hours: 40 hours over 5 days
Registration Fee: WAIVED
Course Requirements: Current licensure to practice as a RN and Completion of the Adult SANE training course
Registration deadline—October 15, 2013
Purpose: The purpose of this training is to provide nurses who have attended and completed all requirements of a basic Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners Training course with basic knowledge specific to pediatric forensic evaluation. This intense 5 day training will cover pediatric growth and development; sexual assault injury classification systems; hymenal morphology; pediatric sexual abuse injuries, and forensic documentation. This training does not “certify” the nurse to perform pediatric sexual assault exams. Satisfactory completion indicates that the nurse has attended the training. Post clinical requirements will be recommended and will be the responsibility of the nurse to arrange after the didactic course.
TO POST A TRAINING:
If interested in posting a training session here, contact the sane-sart website administrator at:
Please include details and contact information.
TO BRING A SANE TRAINING TO YOUR AREA...
If interested in bringing a SANE-A training to your area, please contact Dr. Linda Ledray:
Dr. Linda E. Ledray, PhD, RN, SANE-A, FAAN
Director, SANE-SART Resource Service
MMRF, Minneapolis, MN
Adult/Adolecent SANE Trainings Provided
E-mail: Dr. Linda E. Ledray
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Education
Conducted by Linda E. Ledray, PhD, RN, SANE-A, FAAN
This forty-hour didactic training course covers “everything” the RN or MD needs to know to conduct an effective sexual assault examination and work as a member of a Sexual Assault Response Team (SART). It also meets the didactic training requirements of the International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) to sit for their international certification examination.
Presented by one of the leading SANE researchers and educators the information included is evidence-based, up-to-date, comprehensive, and yet presented in a manageable format. Nurses who have participated in this program have indicated it was one of the most exciting courses they have attended; when they finished the course, they felt ready to complete the clinical component
Most Recent Post: 12/09 05:45AM by reshhia [ Views: 4691 ]
Practical Sex Crimes Investigation Training
Monday, October 15 2012 @ 12:15 PM Contributed by: adminLM
Practical Sex Crimes Investigation Training
Proven to be the best practice for investigating sexual crimes, this training utilizes the Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) approach to these complex cases. Attendees will be given practical and current investigative techniques providing a solid foundation when investigating sexual violence.
The courses are delivered by experienced practitioners in either a one or two day format. Training can be customized to meet your jurisdictional needs. Topics available include:
Developing and sustaining a MDT
Victimization and related trauma
Interviewing victims of sexual assault
Crime scene investigation
Using DNA and the crime lab
Working cold case rapes
This training is delivered by:
Investigative Lead, LLC
16605 E. Palisades Blvd. Suite 100-374
Fountain Hills, AZ. 85268
Investigative Lead, LLC is a law enforcement investigative training and consulting group specializing in "real life" delivery of instruction to criminal justice personnel.
Training delivery services include:
Sexual Violence Investigations and Training for Detectives
Sexual Violence Training for First Responders
Crime Scene Management Training
DNA for Law Enforcement Training
Criminal Investigation Major Case Unit Management
Cold Case Investigation, Training and Team Development
Law Enforcement Multi-Disciplinary Team Training
Major Case Investigative Unit Assessment and Consultation
Serial Case Investigation and Management
Law Enforcement Grant Reviewer and Consultant
For additional information in bringing training or consulting to your jurisdiction email Sgt. Jim Markey (retired) or call 602-616-5200.
E-mail: email@example.com Fees: To be determined based on location and length of training
Most Recent Post: 12/07 02:05AM by reshhia [ Views: 786 ]
NEW RESOURCE RELEASED
Friday, October 12 2012 @ 02:37 PM Contributed by: adminLM
Medical Response to Adult Sexual Assault
A Resource for Clinicians and Related Professionals
Linda E. Ledray, RN, SANE-A, PhD, FAAN
Ann Wolbert Burgess, DNSc, APRN, BC, FAAN
Angelo P. Giardino, MD, PhD, MPH, FAAP
512 pages, 432 images, with 24 contributors
Sexual assault remains one of the most problematic and controversial issues in law, medicine, and in society at large. Following the outcry against recent scandals, it has become even more important that medical, law enforcement, legal, social service, and other professionals possess comprehensive knowledge on all issues pertaining to rape, assault, sexual exploitation, and the exam findings of each. It is no longer enough to trust feelings or intuitions; experts in the field must present solid forensic evidence in a knowledgeable manner. Medical Response to Adult Sexual Assault: A Resource for Clinicians and Related Professionals is intended to introduce that knowledge and to familiarize readers with the forensic elements of a sexual assault examination.
Covering topics ranging from date rape and drug-facilitated assault to sexual homicide, Medical Response to Adult Sexual Assault: A Resource for Clinicians and Related Professionals is part of the new Sexual Assault line from STM Learning. Written to expand on the information in the original Sexual Assault: Victimization Across the Lifespan and to include multimedia resources, this new volume contains all new information by experts in the field. Armed with the vital knowledge contained within this volume, professionals working within medical, law enforcement, legal, social service, and other relevant fields would be able to confidently and knowledgably diagnose, treat, and help to prevent adult sexual assault.
The Medical Response to Adult Sexual Assault: A Resource for Clinicians and Related
Professionals—Supplementary CD-ROM combines relevant data and practical solutions to identifying and treating the sexual abuse, assault, and exploitation of adults in an accessible format comprised of forensic images and easy-to-use Powerpoint presentations. The combination of the authoritative text and its supplementary disc makes this volume essential for any professional dedicated to preventing and caring for the victims of sexual abuse.
2013 SART CONFERENCE CANCELED
Due to challenges presented by the DOJ event planning process, there will not be a Seventh National SART Training Conference. There are a number of other projects that we are working on with the Office for Victims of Crime to foster the opportunities to bring SART teams together and to improve the care provided to sexual assault victims by improving the SART system response to all victims of sexual assault. Please check our website this Fall for further details about these new opportunities.
2011 SART CONFERENCE CERTIFICATES
While the evaluation process is closed for the Sixth National SART Training Conference, you may still receive a certificate for continuing education credits by sending your name, discipline and a summary of what you attended in Austin to the SANE-SART Resource Service. E-mail this information with this link: SANE-SART Resource Service
Most Recent Post: 12/05 11:44AM by buyadsense123 [ Views: 2707 ]
NEW National Judicial Education Program (NJEP) Online Resource
Tuesday, April 05 2011 @ 10:36 PM Contributed by: adminLM
The National Judicial Education Program (NJEP) announces the launch of its newest online resource where visitors can access 11 easy-to-present modules and resources for in-person training on cases involving adult victims of sexual assault. These materials provide information and valuable resources that will be useful to judges and individuals from a broad range of disciplines. The objective is to educate on the difficult issues that arise in criminal and civil cases involving sexual assault and intimate partner violence.
To learn more, visit the NJEP Website. Registration is free and open to all.
Most Recent Post: 10/26 11:43AM by john123 [ Views: 1102 ]
NEW CURRICULUM AVAILABLE FROM IAFN - NURSING RESPONSES TO ELDER MISTREATMENT
Tuesday, June 29 2010 @ 11:59 AM Contributed by: adminLM
Nursing Response to Elder Mistreatment Curriculum
Free Training Curriculum for Educators
IAFN now has a curriculum on the nursing response to elder mistreatment
for the public and includes 12 Modules with Instructor Materials,
Participant Materials and PowerPoint presentations
Additional resources and appendices are also available online. This is a free
download. Please go to IAFN Curriculum Link
About the Curriculum
The goal of this course is to help nurses acquire essential knowledge
and skills to appropriately respond to elder mistreatment. This course
prepares nurses to integrate nursing and forensic sciences into the
care of vulnerable older adults who have been mistreated or are at high
risk for mistreatment by trusted others.
Why this Curriculum?
Nurses routinely care for older adults in a variety of settings. As
the aging population in America rapidly increases, nurses are not only
interacting with a greater number of older adults, but there also is an
increased likelihood of encountering individuals who are dependent on
others for help with activities of daily living (such as bathing,
dressing and toileting) and instrumental activities of daily living
(such as shopping, managing finances and using the telephone).
Dependence on “trusted others” for basic care needs increases the risk
of elder mistreatment.
No national, formalized curriculum exists that provides nurses with
foundational knowledge about elder mistreatment and helps them develop
skills to improve their capacity to respond to this problem. There
are also no national-level education programs to build nurses’ basic
forensic skills to enhance screening, assessment, intervention and
referral in cases of actual or potential elder mistreatment. IAFN
seeks to change this.
This formalized curriculum, created by the International Association of
Forensic Nurses (IAFN), with funding from the Office for Victims of
Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, provides
nurses the opportunity to improve their responses in elder mistreatment
Most Recent Post: 12/11 12:44AM by reshhia [ Views: 1667 ]
NEW RESOURCE RELEASED FOR CAMPUS SARTS
Thursday, March 18 2010 @ 03:06 PM Contributed by: adminLM
In a university of 10,000 students, 350 sexual assaults will occur in the course of the school year. Now there’s a comprehensive guide that helps you establish, improve, and manage a coordinated Sexual Assault Response Team that’s trained and ready when needed.
Campus Sexual Assault Response Teams: Program Development and Operational Management by Donna M. Barry, APN, FN-CSA and Paul M. Cell, Chief of Police, Montclair State University.
This important new resource is designed to help you meet your responsibilities swiftly, skillfully, and lawfully. Take the trial-and-error out of establishing an effective sexual assault response by following the guidelines and protocols developed and implemented at one of the country’s most respected SART programs. Learn step-by-step how to:
Establish an effective institutional response to campus sexual assault—with comprehensive procedures and policies for campus law enforcement, student affairs and campus judiciary officers, and health care providers and advocacy staff
Meet your legal obligations under the Clery Act and other federal and state laws
Provide a high level of training in today’s best practices for every member of your response team
Ensure that campus and local officials, health care professionals, and advocates work together proactively to help victims and hold offenders accountable
Make your community a safer place for students, faculty, and employees.
“This book will provide the foundation to assist campuses in the development of a comprehensive plan to address sexual assault.” —
The California Coalition Against Sexual Assault
This Web site is supported by Grant No. 27-60-I01014 awarded by the
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information
Administration. Initial funding was provided by Grant No. 96-VF-GX-K012 awarded by
the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for
Victims of Crime. Points of view within this Web site are those of participating
writers/researchers and do not necessarily represent the official position or
policies of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of Justice or
the Sexual Assault Resource Service.